Our Research

We respond to the current mental health needs of Canadians and advance outcomes-based research, by engaging our stakeholders — people with lived experience, governments, mental health care agencies and service providers — to inform and guide our work.

Alberta, Atlantic Canada & Ontario report highest increase in anxiety and depression levels since COVID-19, says report of survey findings

Alberta, Atlantic Canada and Ontario report increased levels of anxiety and depression that are the highest in Canada, while Quebec reports the lowest increase in both anxiety and depression levels. For those Canadians recently unemployed, 57% cite the negative impact of job loss on their mental health.

These and other key findings are featured in both the summary and full report of the survey “Mental Health in Crisis: How COVID-19 Is Impacting Canadians,” released on May 19 by Mental Health Research Canada.

MHRC’s survey has been designed to capture Canadians’ perception of their level of anxiety and depression, and to identify and evaluate the factors that influence mental health. This inaugural survey is part of a year-long effort to track the COVID-19 mental health crisis.

“We are committed to advancing impact-focused research to help Canadians achieve better mental health, especially through this pandemic. To inform stakeholders, governments and other partners in the sector, MHRC has committed to producing a series of surveys over the next year,” says Akela Peoples, CEO of MHRC.

In addition to the quadrupling of high levels of anxiety and doubling of high levels of depression reported earlier in the survey’s initial findings, MHRC’s survey shows:

  • Residents of Alberta report the largest increase in high anxiety levels (+20%), while residents of Ontario (+17%), Atlantic Canada (+16%) and BC (+15%) report a similar increase, and Quebec residents report the smallest increase (+10%). Similarly, high depression levels increase the most among residents in Atlantic Canada (+12%), followed by Ontario and Alberta (+8% each), and least among Quebec residents (+2%).
  • 28% of Canadians have indicated an increase in the consumption of alcohol per week since the onset of COVID-19, but feel the impact on their mental health is relatively neutral at this point.
  • Canadians with children younger than age 18 note a higher positive impact on their mental health from interactions with family members in their household (41%) than those without children (30%), despite an increase in non-physical conflict (36%) compared to Canadians without children in their household (23%).
  • Urban residents report feeling significantly more supported by their employers in their mental health needs (before COVID-19: 51%; since: 53%) than rural residents (28%; and 34%, respectively).
  • 57% of recently unemployed Canadians report their mental health is negatively impacted by job loss.
  • The next highest concern for employed Canadians is the economic downturn (48%), followed by having a family member lose their job (43%), losing work hours or pay (42%) and being laid off (38%).

“What our survey tells us is that COVID-19 is impacting the mental health of Canadians in notably different ways, and that Canada’s recovery will require solid data to inform policy-making and effective services and programs for Canadians,” says John Trainor, Chair of MHRC’s Board of Directors and Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto.

The survey was conducted in both official languages by Pollara Strategic Insights for MHRC from April 22 to April 28, and engaged 1,803 Canadians 18 years of age or older and all provinces and territories.

Current Research Projects

CHILD/YOUTH E-MENTAL HEALTH IMPACT GRANTS

In partnership with the Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health

3 grants valued at $100,000 each (competition now closed)

Mental illness affects 1.2 million children and youth in Canada. Recent statistics show that in Ontario, 1 in 5 children and youth will experience some form of diagnosed mental health problem; 5 out of 6 of these children and youth will not receive the treatment they need. MHRC and the Centre partnered on this initative to advance or support innovative technology that will impact the mental health of children and youth.

 

GLOBAL STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH FUNDERS

In partnership with the International Alliance of Mental Health Research Funders

MHRC funded the Canadian component of the study

This first-ever global study will examine mental health research spending around the world. It will provide a valuable baseline of how much is being spent on mental health research, what disease areas are being funded, and how much is being spent on research activities from basic biomedical to health services. Findings of the study are expected to be released by the end of summer 2020.

 
 

MENTAL HEALTH INNOVATION PRIZE

In partnership with the Institute for Advancements in Mental Health (IAM)

Valued at $100,000 (competition closed)

Supporting resilience among youth in Canada and preventing incidences of suicide were the impetus for the partnership between MHRC and IAM, and the creation of the first-ever Canada-wide Mental Health Innovation Prize. The Call for Proposals was posted in fall 2019, and there were stages to the competition. The recipients of the Innovation Prize have been selected and will be announced soon.

Completed Research

FELLOWSHIPS, 2016-2019

Dr. Philip Gerretsen – New Investigator Fellowship

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

“The clinical and functional imaging effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on illness awareness in schizophrenia”

This study explores the clinical and functional imaging effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on illness awareness in schizophrenia, arguably the most treatment-resistant manifestation of the disorder. Schizophrenia is ranked 5th among leading causes of disability in industrialized countries and is estimated to cost Canada over $7 billion per year. Impaired awareness of illness, occurring in up to 95% of patients with schizophrenia, is associated with medication non-adherence, poorer functioning and higher risks of relapse, re-hospitalization and violence.

 

Dr. Wataru Inoue – New Investigator Fellowship

Western University

“The role of microglia in synapse refinement during the neuroendocrine adaptation to stress”

Chronic stress is a major risk factor for serious mental illnesses including major depression, post-traumatic stress disorders and memory impairment. Stress-related disorders have emerged as epidemic, estimated to cost $31 billion a year in lost productivity, and billions more in direct medical costs in Canada. How does chronic stress impair our mental health? A common theme in stress-related disorders is that persistent activation of the stress response rewires our brain (known as neuroplasticity) and causes maladaptive forms of neuroplasticity that underlie various disease symptoms.

 

Dr. Nathan Kolla – New Investigator Fellowship

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

“A Multiple Biomarker Approach to Investigating Psychosocial Treatment Response in Justice-Involved Youth with Conduct Disorder”

Some youth in conflict with the law have a history of violence. Many also display conduct disorder, which is a serious behavioural and psychiatric illness associated with disruptive and aggressive behaviour. Fortunately, talk-based therapies have been shown to reduce violence and aggression. The Stop Now And Plan (SNAP) model, one of the best-studied treatments, teaches young people to make better choices in the moment and works to reduce impulsive behaviour, which is a strong risk factor for violence in this population. The SNAP Youth Justice model has been developed for youth in conflict with the law. We propose using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to learn how this SNAP Youth Justice model impacts brain function in treated youth. We’ll also be studying how it affects morning cortisol levels, a stress hormone. 

 

Dr. Marina Milyavskaya – New Investigator Fellowship

Carleton University

“Self-critical perfectionism in the transition to university: Identifying links to depression and anxiety and designing a targeted intervention”

The transition to university is a stressful time for new students. Many develop mental health problems that can interfere with their schoolwork, social life and general functioning. The study’s first goal is to determine whether self-critical perfectionism represents a risk factor for experiencing increased depression and/or anxiety in the first year of university. Incoming students will complete questionnaires before the start of the semester,  halfway through and at the end. This data will be used to identify when a person is at higher risk of developing depression or anxiety, and when self-critical perfectionism becomes a real clinical concern. The study’s second goal is to design and test two different intervention components for people with high levels of self-critical perfectionism: teaching students how to cultivate self-compassion and how to cope with stress.

 

STUDENTSHIPS, 2016-2019

Lauren Drvaric

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

“The Power of Resilience: Positive Psychotherapy for Youth at Clinical High-Risk (CHR) for Psychosis”

Research has shown that clinical high-risk (CHR) youth are in need of novel treatments to help them cope with stress and the symptoms they experience. This study will look at a newly developed therapy known as positive psychotherapy, which helps young people identify their individual character strengths to build resilience. The study will evaluate its effects in CHR youth to reduce stress and psychosis-risk syndrome symptoms compared to standard treatment. It is hoped that positive psychotherapy will provide CHR youth with useful tools to help them navigate the challenges of daily life.

 

Nick Kerman

University of Ottawa

“The Effects of Housing Stability on Service Use among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Abuse”

Mental illness and substance abuse are pervasive problems among the chronically homeless. This study  explores how the use of health, social and justice services differ during transitions from homelessness to housing compared to those from housing to homelessness. It will also examine the differences in service use between participants who achieve housing stability and those who experience housing difficulties and recurrent homelessness. The study will focus on 68 individuals who have been diagnosed with a mental illness and a comorbid substance-use problem, and who are homeless at study entry. Half of the sample will receive housing first (affordable housing in the form of independent apartments with intensive case management); the other half will receive standard care. Participants will be followed over a 24-month period.

 

Danijela Maras

University of Ottawa

“How do avoidant attachment and depression impact quit smoking rates among HIV+ people”

This study will compare nicotine use and depressed mood among HIV+ people as a function of their avoidant attachment relational style. It will also examine how changes in depressed mood and attachment avoidance are related to quit smoking and nicotine use. This study is part of a larger randomized trial that examines the use of two medications (varenicline and nicotine patch), each with and without additional quit smoking counselling tailored for HIV+ smokers. This study, supported by the CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network, has recruited participants across eight Canadian sites who will complete questionnaires assessing their avoidant attachment level, depressed mood and nicotine use at baseline, then every four weeks for 24 weeks. Nicotine use is also confirmed using a machine that measures carbon monoxide levels.

 

Carley Pope

Lakehead University

“A Preventative Approach for Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention”

Postpartum depression is a serious mental health disorder that affects up to 20% of women who have recently given birth. Furthermore, up to 84% of new mothers experience the “baby blues,” which is a briefer period of emotional disturbance. Postpartum depressive symptoms have been found to negatively affect the daily functioning of mothers and can adversely affect the development of infants. Consequently, there is a pressing need for an effective preventive strategy to reduce the risk of postpartum depression.

 

Laura Schulze

University of Toronto

“A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Two Different Patterns of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Refractory Depression”

For a large portion of patients  experiencing depression, medications and therapy are not effective. New treatments are urgently needed. The proposed study will investigate the use of an emerging, non-invasive form of brain stimulation known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to treat major depression. rTMS involves stimulating certain areas of the brain with powerful, focused magnetic field pulses that, over time, can gradually change the activity level of that area. Currently, the use of rTMS to treat major depression requires a 45-minute session, five days per week over a period of four to six weeks, for a total of 20 to 30 sessions. A newly developed pattern of rTMS, known as theta-burst stimulation (TBS), takes just three minutes, twice a day, in as few as five to ten days. This study will compare the two approaches. 

 

Victoria Marche

University of Toronto

“Using Computations Models to Predict Antidepressant Response in Older Adults with Depression”

Major depression affects almost two million Canadians annually. This research project will explore and develop a computational model that uses individual biological and clinical characteristics to predict response to commonly prescribed antidepressants. The project has four phases: an investigation into genome-wide associations; an analysis of microRNAs found circulating in blood; a cellular study to understand how microRNAs regulate genomes to alter the way our neurons produce proteins; and development of an integrated computational model that determines which patients respond to their antidepressants. The goal of this research is to treat depression through personalized, precision treatment.

Archived Research

Explore the range of impactful research we fund: from biomedical research on mental illness to developing national mental health indicators to analyzing treatment effectiveness. Our researchers pursue improved mental health outcomes through cutting-edge, visionary work.

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